John Graham's Research

John Graham’s research has focused on three main areas: international negotiations, international marketing, and structural equations modeling. He has published his academic work in a variety of Financial Times scientific journals (i.e., Journal of Marketing/5, Journal of Consumer Research/2, Journal of International Business Studies/6, Management Science, Marketing Science, Strategic Management Journal, Management Review International, Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Processes, and Journal of Business Ethics) and management journals (i.e., Harvard Business Review/2, Sloan Management Review, and California Management Review).

John has conducted research on culture’s influence on negotiation styles in 21 countries and cultures (i.e., United States, Mexico, Canada (French speakers and English speakers, separately), Brazil, United Kingdom, Norway, France, Spain, Germany, Czech Republic, Russia, Israel, Japan, S. Korea, China (Hong Kong, Guangzhou, Tianjin), Taiwan, Vietnam, and the Philippines.

Note that John is looking for collaborators in other countries. See an invitation to interested researchers around the world: Included are details about negotiation simulation methods, videotaping procedures, and questionnaires used. Contact John directly at if you are interested in working with him. See the invitation.

Below are links to some of his key articles (usually written with colleagues) with brief mention of the different research methods applied in each.

John’s research has been the topic of articles in Smithsonian magazine, the Chronicle of Higher Education, and the Los Angeles Times. The Smithsonian article (January 1988), How Not to Lose the Trade Wars by Cultural Gaffes, describes his approach to research concisely in layman’s terms.

1988 Journal of Retailing, "Gender’s Influence on Behaviors and Outcomes in a Buyer-Seller Negotiation Simulation" compares how American men and women negotiate using content analysis and observational measures of nonverbal behaviors. LINKS ON ALL REST.

1990 Developing Communicative Competence in a Second Language, "An Exploratory Study of the Process of Marketing Negotiations Using a Cross-Cultural Perspective" features content analyses of video tapes including the facial expressions of negotiators.

1993 Negotiation Journal, "The Japanese Negotiation Style: Characteristics of a Distinct Approach" uses observational measures and socio-linguistic analysis of negotiation transcripts and videotapes.

1994 Management Science, "Explorations of Negotiation Behaviors in Ten Foreign Countries …" won a best paper of the year Citation from the Lauder Institute at the Wharton School and uses structural equations modeling.

1999 Journal of International Negotiation, "A Comparison of Russian and American Negotiation Behaviors" includes observational methods and compares the behaviors of 60 Americans to 58 Russians.

1999 Journal of Marketing, "Explorations of National Culture and Word-of-Mouth Referral Behavior in the Purchase of Industrial Services in the United States and Japan" applies theory and methods from networks analysis.

2003 Harvard Business Review, "The Chinese Negotiation" compares the American and Chinese approaches to bargaining.

2004 Management Review International, "A Linguistics-Based Measure of Cultural Distance and Its Relationship to Managerial Values" introduces the new concept and measure of linguistic distance.

2006 Journal of International Business Studies, "Tension and Trust in International Business Negotiations: American Executives Negotiating with Chinese Executives" uses participants evaluations of videotaped negotiations including their emotions.

2008 Journal of Business Ethics, "Regulation vs. Values: How Culture Plays Its Role" uses structural equations to challenge the findings of economists and to demonstrate that culture causes both corruption and regulations.